The term Electronic Security System refers to a system of integrated electronic circuits that are used to ensure the physical security of an area. No matter what form they there are some key principles that they need to embody to be effective. One such principle is that of ‘Detect, Delay, Respond’; this principle basically states that for an Electronic Security System to be effective it has to first detect that there has been a breach to your secured area, then it must ensure that no further deter the intruder from doing further harm and ensure the necessary parties are notified to respond to the breach.
Designing a basic Electronic Security Systems can be quite simple if only considers the simple components of each system. As a matter of fact, designing a basic version of each type of Electronic Security System we will discuss below could be a fun way to practice circuit design. Whether you proceed to physically build it or not is completely up to you. There are many different types of electronics projects; one such type are planning and design projects, which only require a theoretical design be done. Thus, if you don’t have all the physical components necessary to actually build the systems we’ll be discussing, you can always plan and design them instead.
However, to do so, you first need to know what the different types of Electronic Security Systems are. There are 3 main types of Electronic Security Systems and they are: closed circuit television systems (CCTV), Automated Access Control Systems (AACS) and Intrusion Detection Systems (ID).
Closed circuit television (CCTV) systems
This is an automated system that views, monitors and records the goings-on in the area which is being secured. This would be like the surveillance cameras you see in stores or, depending on which country you live in, traffic cameras you find on stoplights. The system consists of 3 main components: cameras, which are used to view the area; recorders, which are used to record the video the cameras capture; and a workstation, located in a remote access area, where security personnel are able to monitor the state of the area they are trying to secure.
Automated Access Control Systems (AACS)
As its name suggests, Automated Access Control Systems or Access Control Systems, regulate access to areas by interfacing with locking mechanisms. The system will only allow entry after the credentials of the perspective visitor are verified; examples of such a system would be doors that require pins or biometric information to allow entry. These systems are not only capable of allowing or denying access but can also keep a log of all attempts to enter the secure area; they may even alert authorities of unauthorized attempts to gain entry.
Intrusion Detection Systems (ID)
These are systems that, use sensors to detect any breaches to the secured area, if any breaches are detected then they trigger an alarm of some sort. This system consists of two components, the sensor and Premise Control Unit (PCU) which monitors the status of the alarm system and transmits the information to a remote monitoring station. The PCU also allows authorized personnel to
activate or deactivate the system. Sounds familiar? It might as this is the type of system used in Home security systems, with the keypad being the PCU.
These Electronic Security Systems are based on basic principles that can be easily comprehended, thus making them suitable for any plan and design electronics projects.
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